[MSX-C] Q&A official thread

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By anonymous

incognito ergo sum (109)

Аватар пользователя anonymous

03-09-2015, 04:17

In other words, in K&R C (1978) the void keyword didn't exist.

The second edition of K&R (published in 1988) does include the void type. That's probably why LSI/ASCII decided to include the VOID type as a typedef of char, as a convenience for the programmer.

By anonymous

incognito ergo sum (109)

Аватар пользователя anonymous

03-09-2015, 06:11

Ok, here's how you implement assembler routines in MSX-C.

There are three cases:

a) Assembler routines that don't require parameters
b) Assembler routines that require a fixed number of parameters
c) Assembler routines that require a variable number of parameters

Case a): Routines that don't require parameters

This is very, very simple. Just implement the assembler routine and label it public. The following example (HELLO.MAC) prints a text string in the screen:

This routine can be called from C just declaring it at the beginning of the C program:

VOID hello();

Case b): Routines that require a fixed number of parameters

All basic types in MSX-C are either 8 bits (char and everything that's a redefinition of char, such as VOID, TINY, STATUS, etc) or 16 bits (everything else: ints, unsigned, pointers, etc).

The way parameter passing works is very simple:

- If the first parameter is 8 bits, it goes into the A register. Else, it goes into HL.
- If the second parameter is 8 bits, it goes into the E register. Else, it goes into DE.
- If the third parameter is 8 bits, it goes into the C register. Else, it goes into BC.
- If there are more parameters, they're passed in the stack: 1 byte for 8-bit parameters and 2 bytes (low byte first) for 16-bit values

The following example takes a pointer to a string as a parameter and prints the string on the screen (remember that we're printing using the MSX-DOS STROUT function, so the string must end in $):

Case c): Routines that accept a variable number of parameters

All parameters are passed in the stack. Register HL contains the number of parameters. All parameters take 2 bytes in the stack, so if you pass an 8-bit value then the high order byte is undefined (that's why we have to cast to int when printing char values using printf()).

Returning values to MSX-C

Again, very simple. If the function returns an 8-bit value, then it goes into register A. If it returns a 16-bit value, it goes into register HL.

This example takes two chars as input, adds them, and returns them also as a char (so there could be overflow). The whole body of the function is just a single asm instruction:

Using them from C

This program uses these three assembler functions from C:

And I prepared a small batch script that does all the assembling, compiling, linking and cleanup required. It should be very easy to understand:

During the following days I'll write a more detailed explanation on Relearning MSX.

By anonymous

incognito ergo sum (109)

Аватар пользователя anonymous

03-09-2015, 06:16

And I forgot to add the output of the test program. Here it is:

By anonymous

incognito ergo sum (109)

Аватар пользователя anonymous

03-09-2015, 06:53

And by the way, you can also do it the other way around: call MSX-C functions from assembler programs. Let's say that you're coding an application in assembler and want to use MSX-C's printf() function. You can just put the parameters for printf() in the stack, declare PRINTF@ as an external symbol, and call it directly.

This is the example in the MSX-C manual:

		extrn	printf@

example:	ld	hl,msg	; push address of string
		push	hl
		ld	hl,1	; load # of parameters
		call	printf@	; formatted output routine
		pop	hl	; pop the parameter off the stack

		ret

msg:		defb	‘Hello world’,10,0

If you do this then you just need to link your program together with the C library and runtime:

L80 example,clib/s,crun/s,cend,example/n/y/e:exampl

(the L80 linker support symbol names up to 6 characters long, that's why we're telling it to start execution at "exampl" instead of "example")

By MicroTech

Champion (384)

Аватар пользователя MicroTech

03-09-2015, 10:06

Unfortunately there is no support for "inline asm", afaik.
btw: ag0ny I really like your style explaining and writing technical documentation Wink

By anonymous

incognito ergo sum (109)

Аватар пользователя anonymous

03-09-2015, 10:09

MicroTech wrote:

Unfortunately there is no support for "inline asm", afaik.

You're right. That's understandable, since the compiler and assembler are separate tools.

MicroTech wrote:

btw: ag0ny I really like your style explaining and writing technical documentation Wink

Thanks.

By AxelStone

Prophet (2744)

Аватар пользователя AxelStone

03-09-2015, 11:40

Yeah it is all very well explained. You are doing a really good work for MSX development comunity with that info, probably a new wave of MSX-C programmers arrive. Thanks.

About integration of Asm it is really poweful I am very impressed with MSX-C capabilities. I hace started to port code from an abandoned Basic game (memory issues) and I hope to finish it Smile

By Manuel

Ascended (16692)

Аватар пользователя Manuel

03-09-2015, 22:14

Javi: thanks, I guess I should read up more on K&R C Smile

By anonymous

incognito ergo sum (109)

Аватар пользователя anonymous

04-09-2015, 01:06

Manuel wrote:

Javi: thanks, I guess I should read up more on K&R C Smile

Actually, I didn't know either. Your question made sense, so I looked it up. I have a 1978 edition of The C Programming Language, but I hadn't realized that there was no void type.

So, I learnt something new yesterday too. :-)

By anonymous

incognito ergo sum (109)

Аватар пользователя anonymous

04-09-2015, 03:33

And just for fun, this is the glossary from the original K&R's The C Programming Language. There's no void. I hadn't even noticed. :-)

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