This article is about the MSX standard, as in, the first generation of the MSX standard, unofficially also known as "MSX1".
MSX1 Standard definition
- CPU Zilog Z80A 3.579 MHz (8-bit)
- RAM at least 8kB. (Most of machines had 64kB built in.)
- 32kB BASIC/MSX-BIOS ROM (MSX-BASIC version 1.0)
- Video Display Processor: Texas Instruments TMS-9918/TMS-9928/TMS-9929
- Video RAM 16kB
- General Instruments AY-3-8910 Programmable Sound Generator. 8 octaves and 3 sound channels.
- Connector for tape/data recorder. Transfer speed: 1200 or 2400 baud in MSX-BASIC (FSK format). The speed can be altered though, with some POKEing or easily in Machine Language programs.
- Printer interface (8-bit, output only, Centronics 14 pin) (optional, but is actually available on most MSX1 computers)
- At least one joystick/mouse/paddle/trackball/graphic tablet connector. Most computers have two. The connector is a normal 9-pin D-connector, male.
- Expansion port (at least one). Only one expansion port is required by the standard MSX. It must be a cartridge slot or an extension bus. Usually it is the cartridge slot. An expansion port must have the standard 50 pin. The pins -/+12V and Sound IN may not connected on expansion bus.
- At least 70 keys (including five function keys with ten programmable functions and four arrow keys).
Some MSX1 computers were sold together with a disk-drive interface and a 360kB (single sided) floppy drive, mostly 3.5" but also 5.25" (mainly used in Brazil, but in the beginning also in the Netherlands) and a so called Quick-disk drive with 2.8" disks. The latter is also used on other home computers, like the Sharp MZ-700. It's not capable of Random access, but it's a kind of tape-stream on a disk (in a spiral). A 3" (Amstrad) drive was probably also available but never was widely used by MSX users. Since Sony's introduction of the 3.5" floppy drive, micro floppy disks became more or less the standard on MSX machines, especially in Europe and Japan.
These are governed by the used TMS video chips and boil down to the following modes (in MSX-BASIC):
|0||40×24 characters a 6x8 pixels||2||Text mode. 256 chars.|
|1||32×24 characters a 8x8 pixels||16, a colorbyte per 8 chars.|| Text mode. 256 chars.|
The charset always can be filled with game graphics. A tile mode. MSX-BASIC games typically use this screen as one would be able to 'type' a level onto the screen using PRINT.
|2|| 256×192 pixels|
32×24 characters a 8x8 pixels
|16, two colors per 8x1 pixels.|| Bitmap mode.|
At the same time a Text mode.
768 chars: the bitmap is made of 3 screen regions, each one a charset a 256 chars. BASIC uses this mode bitmap style with "LINE" style commands, while many games use it as tile mode.
|3||64×48 (4×4 pixel blocks)||16||Multi color mode|
- Note that in screen 1 and 2 there is a "color spill" effect
- 32 sprites available in screen 1, 2 and 3, but only four can be displayed on a row at the same time. Sprites like on game consoles.
MSX1 software was available mostly on cartridge or tapes. Later on some software was also made available on disks (mainly 360kB - 3.5"), but disks for the most part only became poplar with the MSX2. Hundreds of games where produced in the 80's for MSX1.
Cassettes where more popular in Europe, while cartridges where more popular in Japan. Cartridge based software had the advantage of instant loading, and less memory needed. But had the disadvantage of higher production cost, especially for larger games. Cassettes had the advantage of low production cost, but where easy to copy with a, common back then, dual tape deck. This is also reflected in the amount of memory the typical MSX came with. As cartridge based software requires less memory, Japanese MSX systems typically had less memory then their European equivalent.
See the list on the page about the MSX1 Computers.