PLAY
This page was last modified 20:25, 6 December 2019 by Mars2000you. Based on work by Gdx and NYYRIKKI.

Contents

Effect

Executes the instructions of a Music Macro Language (MML) allowing to play notes on one or several PSG channels (and optionally on MSX-AUDIO/PCM, MSX-MUSIC or MSX-MIDI).

Note: If you use BEEP all values of the MML instructions will be reset to their default values.

Syntax

PLAY [#<device>],["<MML string - Channel 1>"],["<MML string - Channel 2>"],...[,"<MML string - Channel 13>"]

Note: Do not put a comma if no MML string is behind. If no parameter is required for one channel between two others, put only the two quotation marks.

Parameters

<device> is a number that defines the used sound chip. This parameter is available only after CALL AUDIO or CALL MUSIC has been executed.

  • 0 = PSG (default value - can be omitted)
  • 1 = MSX-MIDI (optional - requires MSX-MUSIC Basic and a MSX-MIDI hardware)
  • 2 or 3 = MSX-AUDIO or MSX-MUSIC depending on the chip activated by CALL AUDIO or CALL MUSIC, eventually with PCM and PSG

There is no any difference between modes 2 and 3.

<MML string> for each music channel is a string of macro language instructions that describe the notes to play. Maximum length is 255 characters per string.

  • When using only PSG, the simplified syntax is therefore

PLAY ["<MML string - PSG Channel 1>"], ["<MML string - PSG Channel 2>"], ["<MML string - PSG Channel 3>"]

  • When using MSX-MUSIC or MSX-MIDI, the maximum of FM or MIDI melody strings can't exceed the number of FM or MIDI melody channels enabled with CALL MUSIC. However, there's a special rule for the 7th and 8th strings when mode 1 is specified with CALL MUSIC on Turbo R with MSX-MIDI.

The first strings are for the FM or MIDI melody channels, the next one is for the FM or MIDI rhythm, the next 3 strings can be used for the PSG channels. If the selected mode does not have a FM or MIDI rhythm, you have to omit the corresponding string with a comma.

  • When using MSX-AUDIO, the maximum of FM melody strings can't exceed the number of FM melody channels enabled with CALL AUDIO.

The first strings are for the FM melody channels, the next one is for PCM, the next one is for the FM rhythm, the next 3 strings can be used for the PSG channels. If the selected mode does not have PCM and/or FM rhythm, you have to omit the corresponding strings with a comma.

MML instructions

MML has the following instructions:

Instruction Effect Values / Remarks
A to G [<halftone>][<octave>][<period>] Specifies a note from the scale, eventually with a specific increasing / decreasing halftone and/or octave and/or period * <halftone> = + or # for increasing halftone (sharp), - for decreasing halftone (flat)
* <octave>=1 to 8 (default value: 4)
* <period>=one or several . (dots), each . lengthens note by 1.5
L<length> Specifies the length of the notes after this instruction * <length>=1 to 64 (MIDI: 1 to 96)
* (FM! 1=full note 2=half note 3=third note 4=quarter note (default value) etc...
* (MIDI) 96=full note 48=half note 32=third note 24=quarter note (default value) etc...
* If no length is specifed the length of the last played note is used
N<number>[<period>] Specifies the note corresponding to the number (or pitch) - Beware! It's not a MIDI note number, but a number on a conventional scale. * <number>=0 to 96
* If <number>= 0 no sound is generated. In this case a short pause is played before the remaining part
* <period>=one or several . (dots), each . lengthens note by 1.5
O<octave> Specifies the octave of the notes after this instruction <octave>=1 to 8 (default value: 4)
R<pause>[<period>] Specifies a pause (or rest) * <pause>=1 to 64 (MIDI: 1 to 96)
* (FM) 1=full pause 2=half pause 3=third pause 4=quarter pause (default value) etc...
* (MIDI) 96=full pause 48=half pause 32=third pause 24=quarter pause (default value) etc...
If no pause is specified the length specified by the last L instruction will be applied
* <period>=one or several . (dots), each . lengthens pause by 1.5
T<tempo> Specifies the tempo of the notes after this instruction * <tempo>=32 to 255 (default value: 120)
* it indicates the number of quarter notes per minute
* If no tempo is set the tempo of the last played note will be used
V<volume> Specifies the volume of the notes or the MIDI velocity after this instruction (when applied to FM rhythm, it's only for the non-accented voices) * <volume>=0 to 15 (default value: 8)
* If no volume is set the volume of the last played note will be used
* For MIDI instruments, the value is multiplied by 8 to modify the velocity of the note output
X<string>; Executes a sub-string A$ of instructions * String-variables can be used within PLAY MML instructions
* A X needs to be prefixed and all variables must be closed by a ';'
* Adding other MML instructions after the last ';' will result in error
=<variable>; Puts a parameter in a integer-variable after one of several sub-strings of instructions (see X instruction) * Variables can be used within PLAY MML instructions
* The value range is determined by the preceding MML but it cannot exceed the value 32767
* Adding other MML instructions after the last ';' will result in error
< Decreases one octave Can be used after CALL AUDIO or CALL MUSIC, also with PSG
> Increases one octave Can be used after CALL AUDIO or CALL MUSIC, also with PSG
& Connects two notes (Tie) * Can be used after CALL AUDIO or CALL MUSIC, also with PSG
* When placed between two notes with the same pitch, it extends the length of the notes to the equivalent of two notes
* When the notes on both sides of this instruction have a different pitch, only the note in front will be played for 100% of its value.
Only for PSG
M<frequency> Specifies the sound modulation (envelope frequency) * <frequency>=1 to 65536 (default value: 255)
* If no frequency is specified the last set value will be used
* See also SOUND, registers 11 and 12
S<pattern> Specifies an envelope pattern * <pattern>=0 to 15 (default value: 0)
* If no envelope pattern is specified the last set value will be used
* See also SOUND, register 13
Only for MSX-AUDIO/PCM and MSX-MUSIC
Y<register>,<value> Writes value directly in a register of the sound generator * <value>=0 to 255
* See also CALL AUDREG
Only for MSX-AUDIO/PCM and MSX-MUSIC/MIDI
Q<division> Divides the length of the sound <division>=1 to 8 (default value: 8)
{<string>}<tuplet length> Defines a tuplet (duplet, triplet, quadruplet, quintuplet, etc..) * <tuplet length>=1 to 64 (FM) or 1 to 96 (MIDI) (default value= length value set with L<length>)
* Generates even notes
* Quantity of notes is equal to the quantity of pitches enclosed between { }
* Each length is equal to the length of a nth note divided by the quantity of the pitches
@<voice> Changes used FM voice or tone color of MIDI equipment * <voice>=0 to 63 for FM, 0 to 127 for MIDI
* See CALL MK VOICE, CALL VOICE or CALL VOICE COPY for FM table
* Can also be used for the MIDI rhythm, it will be ignored by the built-in FM sound source
@V<tuning> Makes a fine tuning of the FM volume or the MIDI Control Change # 7 output <tuning>=0 to 127
@W<state length> Continues the state for a specified length * <state length>=1 to 64 (MIDI: 1 to 96)
* default value= length value set with L<length>
Only for MIDI
Z<data> Sends 1 byte data to MSX-MIDI <data>=0 to 255
@C<control>,<value> Changes the value of a MIDI control * <control>=0 to 127
* <value>=0 to 127
@H<channel> Specifies the MIDI channel to be used <channel>=0 to 16
@S<clock mode> Specifies the mode of the MIDI real-time clock * <clock mode>=0 to 2
* 0=FCH (STOP) - stop the clock
* 1=FAH (START) - start the clock
* 2=FBH (CONTINUE) - start the clock with the tempo specified in the first PLAY string
Only for FM or MIDI rhythm
B Generates bass drum For MIDI, first specify note number with CALL MDR
C Generates cymbals For MIDI, first specify note number with CALL MDR
H Generates hi-hat For MIDI, first specify note number with CALL MDR
M Generates tom-tom For MIDI, first specify note number with CALL MDR
S Generates snare drum For MIDI, first specify note number with CALL MDR
<number> Generates the musical sounds written up to here, then waits for the length of a nth note <number>=1 to 64
 ! Accents preceeding note
@A<volume> Sets the volume for FM accented voices or the MIDI velocity * <volume>=0 to 15
* For MIDI instruments, the value is multiplied by 8 to modify the velocity of the note output


Notes:

  • Default Value: Initial value set when CALL MUSIC or CALL AUDIO is used
  • FM Rhythm: There are 5 different voices that are available for the rhythm (percussion) MML and up to 3 voices may be played simultaneously. For this reason the rhythm MML first lines up the instruments that are to be played simultaneously.

Examples

10 PLAY "CDE","EFG"
PLAY#2,"","","","BSH8H8H8S!H!8H8"

Plays: Bass, snare, hi-hat and wait an 8th note,
hi-hat and wait an 8th note,
snare, hi-hat plays accented and waits an 8th note,
hi-hat and wait an 8th note.

1 '----->IDENTIFICATION DIVISION
2 'BIZET:Carmen(Habanera)
3 'by JL2TBB for MSX-MUSIC on HB-F1XD
100 '----->ENVIRONMENT DIVISION
110 CALLMUSIC(1,0,1,1,1,1,1,1):CALLPITCH(440):CALLTRANSPOSE(0):POKE-1460,20:SOUND6,0:SOUND7,49
120 CLEAR3000:DEFSTRA-K:DEFINTL-Z:DIMA(12),B(12),C(12),D(12),E(12),F(12),G(12),H(12),I(12)
130 '----->RHYTHM PATTERN
140 J="M500C12M200C24":K="M4000C8"
150 H(0)="T100SL24"+J+J+K+J+J+J+K+"V10CV9CVDS"+J+J+K+J+J+J+K+J:I(0)="T100R2.R8L24O8VEV7EV6E"
160 G(0)="T100V15@A2Y40,5Y24,153BM!24M!24M!24M!12M!24S8R12B8B24B8S4B4S8R12B8B24B8S8Y24,15C8"
170 H(1)=LEFT$(H(0),151)+"M5000R12C8R24C4":I(1)=I(0)
180 G(1)=LEFT$(G(0),66)+"SCB8R24SCB4"
190 G(11)="BCS24BCS4"
200 H(10)="RS0M500R4L32CCCCM1000CCCCM1500CCCCM2000CCCC":H(11)="M3000C24C4"
210 '----->BASS PATTERN
220 A(0)="T100@13V13O3D1.":B(0)="T100@13V14O2D1."
230 B(1)="D2.>>@31L24C12DF12DF12GC12DFGA>C<A>CR12V15DR8D<V14"
240 B(2)="Q4D8RR12FG8G8A8>QD8Q4<D8RR12FG8G8A8>QE8Q4<":B(3)="D8RR12FG8A8>E8<QA8E8R12GAGA>C+12<AR12>DR8D<"
250 B(4)="Q4D8RR12F+G8G8A8>QD8Q4<D8RR12F+G8G8A8>QE8Q4<":B(5)="E8RR12F+G8A8>E8<QA8E8R12GAGA>C+12<AR12>DR8D<"
260 B(6)="Y19,0V5L2T150OD.<A.>DE-4E."
270 B(7)="<B.>D.C+.<A>C+4":B(8)="E.T130D.T120C+<A":B(10)="T150>V4D"
280 '----->MELODY
290 A(1)="R1R8OL24@6DCDFGA>C<A>CR@0V13O6Q4L8DD-"
300 J="Q6C12C12C12Q4<BB-AR12A24":A(2)=J+"A-GF24G24F24E12F24GF12QG48F48Q4E4>DD-"
310 A(3)=J+"GFQL24EFED12EQ4L8FED&D>DD-"
320 A(4)="R48"+J+"A-GF+24G24F+24E12F+24GF+12QG48F+48Q4E4>DD-16"
330 A(5)="R48"+J+"GF+E24F+24E24D12E24F+E12<A24>D12..R12@21VY0,40Y1,36Y2,26Y4,244<A24>DE"
340 C(4)="@0O5VQ4L8A12A12A12A-GF+R12F+24FED24E24D24C+12D24ED12E48D48C+4BB-"
350 C(5)="A12A12A12A-GF+R12F+24EDC+24D24C+24<B12>C+24D<A12G24F+12Y50,5R8A24>DE"
360 A(6)="V5T150L8F+4.AF+ED4.EF+GAAAABAG4.<B>EF+":A(7)="G4.BGF+E4.F+GABBBB>C+<BA4.<A>DE"
370 A(8)="T140G4.BGF+T130E4.F+GAT120>C+<BG+AL32>EF+L28EF+L24EF+L20EF+L16EF+L12EF+L8EF+L7EF+L6EF+L5EF+L4EF+L3EF+E"
380 A(10)="T150R8.D"
390 '----->OTHERS
400 J="@10D8R12A24>@16F8<@6A8":C(0)="T100Q2O4"+J+J+J+J:C(1)=J+J
410 D(0)="@14V13T100R1.RR12O5C24R12D24"
420 E(0)="@14V13T100R1.RR12OG24R12A24"
430 F(0)="@6V14T100L24O3"
440 J="R1RL24@6>FGA>C<A>CR12":D(1)=J+"V15DR8D8V10L64V9C<BVAGV7FEV6DC"
450 E(1)=J+"V15AR8A8V10L64V9GFVEDV7C<BV6AG":F(1)=J+">GR8G8V10L64V9FEVDC<V7BAGF"
460 F(1)=J+">GR8G8V10L64V9FEVDC<V7BAGF"
470 D(2)="@2L24V10O5D&Y19,120&Y19,130&Y19,140&D&Y19,150&D&Y19,160&D&Y19,170&D&Y19,178&D1&D4F2"
480 E(2)="@2L24V9OG&G&Y20,5&G&Y20,10&G&Y20,15&GY20,50&G&Y20,225Y20,30&G1&G4B-2"
490 F(2)="@2L24V9OE&Y21,160&E&Y21,170&E&Y21,180&E&Y21,190&E&Y21,200&E&E1&E4G2"
500 D(3)=LEFT$(D(2),77)+"2.R24C+2@6R12V13>DR8D"
510 E(3)="A&Y20,0&A&Y20,10&A&Y20,20&A&Y20,30&A&Y20,40&A&Y20,50&A2.A2V13@6>>>R12DR8D"
520 F(3)="E&E&Y21,215&E&Y21,225&E&Y21,235&E&Y21,245&E&Y21,255&E2.G2@6>>R12AR8A"
530 D(4)="@16LRVO5F+A2R>D<B2":E(4)="@16LRVO5DF+2RAG2":F(4)="@16LRVOA>D2RF+E2"
540 D(5)="RE>E2R<A>DY51,90":E(5)="R<B>B2RGF+":F(5)="R<G>G2RED"
550 D(6)="T150L8Q4OR64D4A>F+<A4DA>F+4<A4D4A>F+D+4E<EF+GAB16."
560 D(7)="E4B>G<B4EB>G4<B4A4>C+AG4F+<<AB>C+DE":D(8)="T140E4B>G<B4T130EB>G4D4E"
570 IJ="SM100T100O8L64CCCL48CCCL32CCCL24CCCR":I(9)=IJ+IJ+IJ
580 D(10)="Y51,5R16O5F+":E(10)="Y52,5R8O5A"
590 J="T100Q8L24V15A>D":A(11)="@6O5"+J:B(11)="@31O4"+J:C(11)="@6O6"+J:D(11)="@2O5"+J:E(11)="@2O3"+J:F(11)="@6O3"+J
600 E(6)="T150@3O6V5Q4L8RDEF+GL24QABABABABABABABABABA4"
610 '----->PROCEDURE DIVISION
620 FORX=0TO5:IFX=4ANDY=0THENX=2:Y=1
630 Z=XMOD2:PLAY#2,A(X),B(X),C(X),D(X),E(X),F(X),G(Z),H(Z),I(Z):NEXT
640 FORX=6TO11:IFX=8ANDY=1THENX=6:Y=0
650 X=X+(X=7)*(Y=0):PLAY#2,A(X),B(X),C(X),D(X),E(X),F(X),G(X),H(X),I(X):NEXT
660 END

Related to

BEEP, CALL AUDIO, CALL AUDREG, CALL MDR, CALL MUSIC, CALL PLAY, CALL MK VOICE, CALL VOICE, CALL VOICE COPY, PLAY(), SOUND

Compatibility

MSX-BASIC 1.0 or higher, MSX-AUDIO BASIC, MSX-MIDI BASIC, MSX-MUSIC BASIC